ardabil port 3

Ardabil pronunciation (Persian and Azeri: is a historical city in north-western Iran. The name Ardabil comes from the Zoroastrian name of "Artawila", which means a holy place. Ardabil is the center of ArdabilProvince. At the 2011 census, its population was 564,365, in 156,324 families, where the dominant majority are ethnic Azeris. Notable for its silk and carpet trade tradition, the ancient Ardabil Carpets are considered some of the best of the classical Persian carpet creations. Ardabil is also known as the seat of a World Heritage Site: the sanctuary and tomb of ShaikhSafî ad-Dîn, eponym of the Safavid Dynasty.

Location

Ardabil is about 70 km (43 mi) from the Caspian Sea, and 210 km from the city of Tabriz. It has an average altitude of 1,263 metres (4,144 ft) and total area of 18.011 km2 (6.954 sq mi).

Neighboring on the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, this city is of great political and economical significance.[citation needed]

The province of Ardabil has been blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights.

It is located on an open plain 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level, just east of Mount Sabalan (4,811 m), where cold spells occur until late spring. Wastewater is used on crops, rangelands, forests, parks and golf courses in many parts of the world ([4e8], among others). Unrestricted irrigation, however, may expose the public to a variety of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths

History

The province is believed to be as old as the Achaemenid (ca. 550–330 BC). It is mentioned in the Avesta, where prophet Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During the Parthian era, the city had a special importance among the cities of Azarbaijan. Some Muslim historians attribute the foundation of Ardabil to king Peroz I of the Sassanid Empire. The Persian poet Ferdowsi also credits the foundation of the city to Peroz I. Ardabil suffered some damages caused by occasional raids of Huns from 4th to 6th century AD. Peroz repaired those damages and fortified the city. Peroz made Ardabil the residence of provincial governor (Maan) of Azarbaijan.

During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in north western Iran, and remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Ardabilis fought the Mongols three times; however the city fell after the third attempt by Mongols. They massacred not only the Ardabilis but inhabitants of neighboring villages, killing everyone they could find.[citation needed] Incursions of Mongols and Georgians left the city in ruins for nearly three centuries until the advent of Safavids.

Safavid Shah Ismail I started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from there, but consequently announced Tabriz as his capital in AD 1500. Yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. It was sacked by Ottomans 14 times between 1514 and 722 and in 1915, and by Russians in 1813, 1828 and 1916.

Bazaars

Gold Bazaar


Ardabil Bazaar In the heart of the Ardabil city, this bazaar stands as old as the Islamic period. Its shape was described by the historians of 4th century AH as a cross, extending in four directions with simply designed domes. Most sections of the bazaar were constructed and renovated during the Safavid and Zand periods.[6]
Produce Bazar, Ardabil and vicinity This is the fresh produce bazaar on the
Meshkin Shahr gate in the city of Ardabil. Vendors buy directly from farmers and distributors.

Ardabil Carpet

Why the Ardabil Carpet was made One of the main sights in the city of Ardabil in north-west Iran is the shrine of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334. The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, who trained his followers in Islamic mystic practices. After his death, his followers remained loyal to his family, who became increasingly powerful.

In 1501, one of his descendants, Shah Isma'il, seized political power. He united Iran for the first time in several centuries and established the Shi'i form of Islam as the state religion. Isma'il was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, named after Shaykh Safi al-Din.

The Safavids, who ruled without a break until 1722, promoted the shrine of the Shaykh as a place of pilgrimage. In the late 1530s, Isma'il's son, Shah Tahmasp, enlarged the shrine, and it was at this time, too, that the carpet was made as one of a matching pair The completion of the carpets was marked by a four-line inscription placed at one end. The first two lines are a poetic quotation that refers to the shrine as a place of refuge:

'Except for thy threshold, there is no refuge for me in all the world. Except for this door there is no resting-place for my head.'

The third line is a signature, 'The work of the slave of the portal, Maqsud Kashani.' Maqsud was probably the court official charged with producing the carpets. He was not necessarily a slave in the literal sense but called himself one to express humility, while the word for 'portal' can be used for a royal court or a shrine. Perhaps Maqsud meant both, as in this case the court was the patron of the shrine.

The fourth line contains the date 946 in the Muslim calendar, which is equivalent to AD 1539–1540.

The Ardabil Carpet and the V&A The two Ardabil carpets were still in the shrine of Shaykh Safi al-Din in 1843, when one was seen by two British visitors. Thirty years or more later, the shrine suffered an earthquake, and the carpets were sold off, perhaps to raise funds for repairs. The damaged carpets were purchased in Iran by Ziegler & Co., a Manchester firm involved in the carpet trade. Parts of one carpet were used to patch the other. The result was one 'complete' carpet and one with no border.

In 1892, the larger carpet was put on sale by Vincent Robinson & Co. of London. The designer William Morris went to inspect it on behalf of this museum. Reporting that the carpet was 'of singular perfection … logically and consistently beautiful', he urged the museum to buy it. The money was raised, and in March 1893 the Museum acquired the carpet for £2000.

The second, smaller carpet was sold secretly to an American collector, and in 1953 it was given to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Ardabil carpet hung on the wall in this gallery for many years. In 2006, the museum created the case in the centre of the gallery so that the carpet could be seen as intended, on the floor. To preserve its colours, it is lit for ten minutes on the hour and half-hour.[7]

Earthquakes

Ardabil is associated with historical confusion between the 893 Dvin earthquake which was often wrongly documented as the 893 Ardabil earthquake due to the similarity of the Arabic name for city of Dvin in Armenia, 'Dabil' to Ardabil.

On 28 February 1997, a destructive earthquake hit the Ardabil area. At least 965 people were killed, 2,600 injured, 36,000 homeless, 12,000 houses damaged or destroyed and 160,000 livestock were killed. Severe damage was observed to roads, electrical power lines, communications and water distribution systems around Ardabil.[8]



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نویسنده : پایبند
تاریخ : سه شنبه 19 شهريور 1392

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